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Cochrane for Clinicians

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Department Collections -- American Family Physician

Search Department collections from past and current issues of AFP, the peer-reviewed clinical journal of the American Academy of Family Physicians.

American Family Physician : AFP Home

http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp/explore/departments.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Laxatives for the Management of Childhood Constipation - ...

Oct 1, 2017 - Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is superior to placebo (mean difference [MD] = 2.61 more stools per week; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 4.08), lactulose (MD = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.31), and milk of magnesia (MD = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.89) at increasing the number of bowel ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p433.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Yoga for Cancer-Related Symptoms in Women with Breast Cancer -...

Oct 1, 2017 - Yoga improves health-related quality of life, reduces sleep disturbances, and decreases fatigue in the short term (up to 12 weeks) among women diagnosed with breast cancer who have completed cancer-related treatment or are receiving cancer treatment compared with no intervention.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p434.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Vitamin D for the Management of Asthma - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - Despite the authors' caution that further data are needed to clarify the role of vitamin D in care, this Cochrane review found that its use reduces the average number of asthma exacerbations requiring corticosteroid treatment from 0.44 to 0.28 per person per year.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p290.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Pregabalin for Fibromyalgia Pain in Adults - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - There is high-quality evidence that pregabalin in daily dosages of 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg reduces pain associated with fibromyalgia. The most effective dosage seems to be 450 mg daily; this dosage is more effective than placebo at reducing pain by at least 50% (number needed to ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p291.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Antiplatelet vs. Anticoagulation Therapy for Patients with ...

Aug 1, 2017 - Heart failure increases the risk of thrombotic complications, but use of warfarin does not lower all-cause mortality more than aspirin in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in sinus rhythm.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p160.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Effects of Yoga in Patients with Asthma - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2017 - Regular yoga improves quality of life as measured on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (mean difference = 0.57 units on a seven-point scale; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.77); improves asthma symptoms (standardized mean difference = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.65); and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p159.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Acupuncture for Migraine Prevention - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - There is moderate-quality evidence that whole-body acupuncture is effective for migraine prevention. Compared with usual care, acupuncture is more effective at reducing headache frequency by at least 50% (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p23.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Beta2 Agonists for Acute Cough or a Clinical Diagnosis of ...

May 1, 2017 - There is insufficient evidence to determine whether beta2 agonists can improve symptoms for children with acute cough or bronchitis with wheeze. Beta2 agonists are not likely to benefit and may cause adverse effects in adults who do not have evidence of airflow restriction (number ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p551.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Surgery vs. Medical Therapy for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding - ...

Jul 1, 2017 - In women of reproductive age with chronic heavy menstrual bleeding, hysterectomy is the most effective treatment for controlling symptoms. Conservative surgery is more effective for controlling bleeding symptoms at one and two years than oral medications or the levonorgestrel-releasing ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p24.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Self-Monitoring and Self-Management of Oral Anticoagulation - ...

Jun 1, 2017 - In patients taking warfarin (Coumadin) for anticoagulation, there is moderate-quality evidence that both self-monitoring (number needed to treat [NNT] = 100) and self-management (NNT = 53) reduce thromboembolic events, and that self-management reduces all-cause mortality (NNT = 67).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p700.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Physical Fitness Training for Patients with Stroke - American ...

Jun 1, 2017 - There is moderate-quality evidence that physical fitness training improves disability after stroke. Cardiovascular training that includes only aerobic exercise has a moderate effect on disability (standard mean difference [SMD] = 0.52 on a pooled disability scale), although it is not ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p701.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Citrate Salts for Preventing and Treating Calcium-Containing ...

May 1, 2017 - Citrate supplementation reduces stone size to less than 5 mm and prevents new stone formation when compared with placebo or no intervention. Citrate therapy also stabilizes existing stones and decreases the need for retreatment. These benefits come at the expense of upper ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p552.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Mini-Mental State Examination for the Detection of Dementia in...

Dec 1, 2016 - When scores are adjusted based on a patient's education level, the MMSE may be useful to rule out a diagnosis of dementia in clinically unevaluated patients 65 years and older (sensitivity = 97%; specificity = 70%). Scores of less than 24 may also be useful to rule in dementia in ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p880.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Radioactive Iodine Therapy vs. Antithyroid Medications for ...

Mar 1, 2017 - Radioactive iodine therapy and antithyroid medications produce similar health-related quality-of-life outcomes in patients with Graves disease. Radioactive iodine therapy is an appropriate choice for patients who prefer definitive treatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p292.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: The Effect of Statins on Dementia and Cognitive Decline - ...

Feb 1, 2017 - Statins given in later life to patients at risk of vascular disease do not prevent dementia or cognitive decline compared with placebo. Adverse effects are similar between groups.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p151.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Preventing Unintended Adolescent Pregnancy - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2017 - Among adolescents, educational interventions increase reported condom use at most recent intercourse, whereas contraceptive-promoting interventions increase use of hormonal contraception.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p422.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older Adults Living ...

Feb 1, 2017 - Structured exercise programs and home safety interventions reduce both the rate and the risk of falling among community-dwelling adults 65 years and older, whereas multifactorial assessment and intervention programs reduce the rate of falls but not the risk of falling. Vitamin D ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p152.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Effects of Altered Dietary Salt Intake in Patients with ...

Apr 1, 2017 - Reducing salt intake lowers blood pressure and reduces proteinuria in patients with CKD, but there is no evidence to determine whether lowering salt consumption leads to clinically significant reductions in end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events, or all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p423.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Extended-Release Bupropion for Preventing Seasonal Affective ...

Jan 1, 2017 - When started in the fall, extended-release bupropion, 300 mg once daily, is effective in preventing recurrent symptoms in high-risk adults with a history of SAD (number needed to treat [NNT] = 5), as well as those at lower risk (NNT = 8). Headaches, nausea, and insomnia may limit ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p10.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Primary Hypertension - American ...

Apr 15, 2015 - ACE inhibitors and ARBs have similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in head-to-head trials. However, slightly more adverse effects were noted in patients assigned to ACE inhibitor therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p522.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Interventions to Facilitate Shared Decision Making to Address ...

Jan 1, 2017 - Interventions to facilitate shared decision making reduce the prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections in the short term (within six weeks of the consultation) without increasing return visits or decreasing patient satisfaction (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p11.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Fibromyalgia - ...

Oct 1, 2016 - SSRIs may have a small to moderate effect on pain (number needed to treat [NNT] = 10), global improvement (NNT = 7), and depression (NNT = 13) in patients with fibromyalgia, but the quality of evidence is very low because of bias and small studies. SSRIs do not reduce fatigue related to...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p548.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Impact of Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation - American ...

Dec 1, 2016 - Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation reduces cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization. There is no evidence that it reduces the rates of total mortality, myocardial infarctions, coronary artery bypass grafts, or percutaneous coronary interventions.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p881.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Amiodarone for the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death - ...

Nov 1, 2016 - Although not a substitute for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), amiodarone is effective for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death when compared with placebo (number needed to treat [NNT] = 47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 100), but it does not ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p692.html

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